Category Archives: Fundamental Principles

Singularity at the Black-Hole Horizon is Physical

1. Newtonian Viewpoint Consider a massive body with mass inside a ball of radius . The Schwarzschild radius is defined by Based on the Newtonian theory, a particle of mass will be trapped inside the ball and cannot escape from … Continue reading

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PID Weak Interaction Theory

This post presents a brief introduction to the field theory of weak interactions, developed recently by the authors, based only on a few fundamental principles: the action is the classical Yang-Mills action dictated uniquely by the gauge invariance and the … Continue reading

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Problems in Classical Electroweak Theory

The classical electroweak theory forms the core of the standard model of particle physics. The great success of both the electroweak theory and the standard model include e.g. the prediction of the intermediate vector bosons and the Higgs boson. In … Continue reading

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Angular Momentum Rule and Scalar Photons

[1] Tian Ma and Shouhong Wang, Quantum Rule of Angular Momentum, AIMS Mathematics, 1:2(2016), 137-143. [2] Tian Ma and Shouhong Wang, Mathematical Principles of Theoretical Physics, Science Press, 2015 1. Angular Momentum Rule of Quantum Systems Quantum physics is the … Continue reading

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Principle of Gauge Symmetry Breaking

The main objective of this post is to introduce the following principle of gauge symmetry breaking, based on the principle of interaction dynamics (PID), first postulated in [3]: Principle of Gauge Symmetry Breaking. The gauge symmetry holds true only for … Continue reading

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Geometric Mechanism of Fundamental Interactions

In this post, we shall give some insights in postulating; see also Article [3]: Geometric Mechanism of Interactions: The gravitational force is the curved effect of the space-time manifold , and the electromagnetic, weak, strong interactions are the twisted effects … Continue reading

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Yang-Mills Theory and Principle of Representation Invariance (PRI)

The objectives of this post are 1) to briefly introduce the basic formulation of the gauge theory, and 2) to postulate the principle of representation invariance (PRI): Principle of Representation Invariance (PRI) [Ma-Wang, 2012] An gauge theory must be invariant … Continue reading

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